India is the country with the highest burden of TB, with World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics for 2013 giving an estimated incidence figure of 2.1 million cases of TB for India out of a global incidence of 9 million. The estimated TB prevalence figure for 2013 is given as 2.6 million.1“Global Tuberculosis Control 2014, WHO, Geneva, 2014 www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/
It is estimated that about 40% of the Indian population is infected with TB bacteria, the vast majority of whom have latent rather than active TB.
Most of the national TB statistics for India come from the government Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) which was started in 1997, and which was then expanded across the country.
TB statistics will often refer to the incidence and prevalence of TB, and this will usually be referring to active TB. So the TB incidence for India is the number of new cases of active TB disease in India during a certain time period (usually a year). By contrast the TB prevalence is the number of people in India who are living with active TB. Prevalence is usually, but not always given as a percentage of the population.2“Basic Statistics: About Incidence, Prevalence, Morbidity, and Mortality – Statistics Teaching Tools”, Department of Health, New York State www.health.ny.gov/diseases/chronic/basicstat.htm
|Year||Population of India covered under RNTCP (millions)||Total TB cases notified||Total smear positive TB cases notified||New smear positive TB cases notified||New smear negative TB cases notified||New extra pulmonary TB cases notified|
See the page about TB treatment for more about TB treatment for new patients.
TB retreatment is when patients need TB treatment again after they have ended their first course of drug treatment. People who need retreatment are classified according to whether they relapsed, failed or defaulted on their original treatment.
Patients are said to have relapsed if they become ill again after they have finished their first TB drug treatment which appeared to have been successful. Patients who experience only a short improvement whilst on drug treatment, or who never respond to treatment at all, are said to have failed their TB treatment. Patients are usually referred to as having defaulted on their treatment, and need retreatment, if they stopped taking their first course of drug treatment before they had finished the course.
In India in 2013 273,265 people needed TB retreatment because of initial treatment relapse, default or failure.
|Year||Retreatment after treatment relapse||Retreatment after treatment default||Retreatment after treatment failure||Other retreatment||Total retreatment|
In any retreatment situation it is possible that the person has got drug resistant TB. This is particularly likely to be the case if the person has never responded to and has failed their initial drug treatment. In this case they need drug susceptibility testing for drug resistance and they may need specific TB treatment for multi drug resistant TB.
The statistics given above are the figures for retreatment amongst smear positive patients. They do not include the retreatment outcomes for smear negative patients, who are subsequently found to have TB, and many of the smear negative patients will have both HIV and TB.
The overall treatment success rate for new TB patients was 88% in 2013. For retreatment patients the treatment success rate was only 70%.
The main TB statistics for each state in India also come from the government Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP).
|State||Population covered by RNTCP||Total patients registered for treatment (2011)||Smear positive patients diagnosed (2011)||Smear positive retreatment after relapse patients (2010)||Smear positive retreatment after failure patients (2010)||Smear positive retreatment after default patients (2010)|
|Andaman & Nicobar||400,000||908||367||56||6||29|
|D & H Haveli||400,000||419||298||28||4||29|
|Daman & Diu||300,000||313||216||25||6||12|
|Jammu & Kashmir||13,100,000||13,473||9,017||1,283||115||290|
TB India 2014 Revised National TB Control Programme Annual Status Report, New Delhi, 2014 www.tbcindia.nic.in/Pdfs/TB India 2014.pdf
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|1.||↑||“Global Tuberculosis Control 2014, WHO, Geneva, 2014 www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/|
|2.||↑||“Basic Statistics: About Incidence, Prevalence, Morbidity, and Mortality – Statistics Teaching Tools”, Department of Health, New York State www.health.ny.gov/diseases/chronic/basicstat.htm|